This post is the second on my series on Mohave desert plants, this time focused on C4 plants, not really as complex as it might sound. The C4 photosynthetic pathway has evolved an estimated 45 times in terrestrial plants (Sage 2004), and is most prominent in grasses, which account for roughly 25% of global terrestrial primary production (Still et al. 2003) and include important crop and weed plants and potential biofuels such as maize, sugarcane, sorghum and switchgrass. The highest rate of photosynthesis is typically observed in C4 plants. The photosynthetic rate in such plants is known to be directly related with the variation of the solar rays in the daytime. Maximum rate of photosynthesis occurs in the red and blue regions of the visible light as seen in the absorption spectra of chlorophyll a and b. These are of economic importance as they have a comparatively higher photosynthetic efficiencies in comparison to other plants. C4 photosynthetic plants outperform C3 plants in hot and arid climates. By concentrating carbon dioxide around Rubisco C4 plants drastically reduce photorespiration. The frequency with which plants evolved C4 photosynthesis independently challenges researchers to unravel the genetic mechanisms underlying this convergent evolutionary switch. The conversion of C3 crops, such as rice, towards C4 photosynthesis is a long‐standing goal. Nevertheless, at the present time, in the age of synthetic biology, this still remains a monumental task, partially because the C4 carbon‐concentrating biochemical cycle spans two cell types and thus requires specialized anatomy.